Livestock development in Nepal is considered to have been initiated, with import of cows from UK, way back in 1917 BS, by Jung Bahadur Rana, prime minister. Then, ruling elites gradually started bringing exotic cows from India, and number of exotic cows in Kathmandu valley increased, as people close to ruling families followed them.
Livestock Improvement Section, with main objective of increasing genetic potentialities of indigenous cows was officially established in 2008 BS (1952 AD), and exotic breeds such as Red Sindhi, Sahiwaal, Jersey and Brown Swiss were used for "grading-up" of native cattle. As there were only small number of crossbred cows in Kathmandu valley, artificial insemination (AI) program with liquid semen was started in 2017/18 (1961/62). Thus, use of Red Sindhi, Sahiwaal, Jersey, Holstein and Brown Swiss liquid semen to up-grade native cattle came into practice, in the year 2018/19 (1962/63).
An Artificial Insemination Project was started at Tripureswor, Kathmandu in 2025/26 (1969/70), and AI program received further momentum after establishment of Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) Plant in the year 2037/38 (1980/81). The Project was renamed as Animal Breeding Division (ABD) and was shifted to Khumaltar in the year 2041/42 (1985/86). The ABD initiated breeding activities in cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, and poultry with main emphasis on AI in cattle and buffalos. In 2046, when ABD became a part of Nepal Agriculture Research and Services Center (NARSC), the Department of Livestock Services (DLS) started AI program naming it Artificial Insemination Services. The Artificial Insemination Services was renamed Animal Breeding and Artificial Insemination Program in 2048/49 (1991/92) and was made a part of the Department of Agriculture Development (DoAD). With restructuring of the Agricultural Ministry and re-establishment of DLS in 2052/53 (1995/96), the program was named as Animal Breeding and Artificial Insemination Section and renamed National Livestock Breeding Center in 2061/62 (2004/05).
This office was established in 2075/04/01 as a National Livestock Breeding Office and situated in Gaughat of Banke District. This office is responsible for supporting animal breeding programs in general and A.I. program in most of the districts of state no. 5, karnali state and state no.7. At present this office supports the districts of Banke, Bardiya, Surkhet, Dang, Kailali and Kanchanpur. In addition to regular AI program in these districts Jumla, Dailekh, Salyan, Humla, Puthan, Rukum and Rolpa districts have started seasonal AI. Monitoring of AI program, bulls for natural services and breeding groups of other livestock speicies is also a major job of this office.